PCI-IDO-xx Series cards offer a range of 16, 32, or 48 individual, optically isolated differential outputs. These cards are ideal for use in control and instrumentation applications where high-voltage protection is required. Individual channel-to-channel isolation allows every channel to be physically and electrically separated from the others. The opto-isolated outputs use solid-state, P-Channel FET switches, providing a much faster turn-on and turn-off time and higher life expectancy than electromechanical relays. User-supplied load voltages can range from 5V to 60V. The cards use up to six bytes of I/O bus address, one byte for each of eight bits of output. The logic on the chip allows the application to read what was written to the latches. Diodes are included across the load for inductive-spike protection. These cards are especially useful in applications where high common-mode external voltages are present. Isolation is required to guard electronics from transient voltage spikes and offers greater common-mode noise rejection in electronically noisy surroundings containing industrial machinery and inductive loads. These applications include factory automation, energy management, industrial ON/OFF control, security systems, manufacturing test, and process monitoring. In addition to protecting industrial applications from accidental contact with high external voltages, the isolation provided eliminates troublesome ground loops. Connections are available via 50-pin IDC type headers, ribbon cables, and a variety of screw terminal boards. A strain relief bar where the cables exit the card assures that the cables will not interfere with adjacent cards. Standard cables are six feet long but alternate lengths are available. These cards are supported for use in most operating systems and include a free DOS, Linux (including Mac OS X) and Windows 98/NT/2000/XP/2003 compatible software package. This package contains sample programs and source code in "C" for DOS, and Visual Basic, Delphi, C++ Builder, and Visual C++ for Windows. Also incorporated is a graphical setup program in Windows. Linux support includes installation files and basic samples for programming from user level via an open source kernel driver. Third party support includes a Windows standard DLL interface usable from the most popular application programs, and includes example LabVIEW VIs. Embedded OS support includes Windows XPe.